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exploding oil filter, Please Help!!


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I will be calling "Precision Oil Pumps" on Monday to see what they have to say, but I checked the box it came in and it states right on the box, "due to the severity of use, we are in no way responsible for any damaged parts or faulty engines" or something of that nature, but since my motor has not really run yet, they may replace it. If not my wife works at Napa, so I'm not really worried about getting a pump, just the road to getting my engine back together and working. I'm just really hoping I can get my oil pan off without pulling the whole motor back out. I have the Moroso 7 qt pan, anybody ever remove one of these pans without completely removing the engine? I know I will have to raise the engine a couple inches at least, maybe drop the sway bar? Thanks for all the help everybody!!

 

Looking forward to hearing about the customer service you get from precision oil pumps.

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Forgive my ignorance...I just can't imagine how a oil filter can explode with the kinds of pressure we're talking about (30-70 psi, even 100 psi). Those kinds of pressures are seen in typical driving (well, maybe not 100 psi), but they must be designed for larger margins of operation. Since oil goes in the filter and then out again, even if the outbound flow was restricted 100%, once the filter was full, one cannot generate more pressure.

 

Can someone explain to me how exactly one can generate sufficient pressure to rupture the oil filter canister?

 

I wonder if there is an extra oil filter gasket in place which would allow oil to leak out at pressure as though the oil filter burst, but the canister itself would still be intact. I'm confused...

Let me check your shorts!

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cactus.jpg.92e5d9d8700abc0ed60c8ccb3426248e.jpg

 

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ok, i reread your thread.

 

your brad penn was thinner than your straight weight vr1 when it was cold so that made the problem WORSE.

 

i also see that you are in minnesota so i looked up the air temp which was around a high of 50.

 

the oil filters you tried have a burst pressure of around 300 psi . a royal purple filter is 600 psi but the seal should blow at around 300 psi.

 

before you tear the thing apart, you might consider installing a royal purple filter and 5w-30 or 10w-30 conventional oil with at least 1150 ppm of ZDDP or ZDDB.

 

I would also consider using a dedicated break in oil.

 

if your oil pressure stays above 100 for more than a few seconds, i would turn it off and remove the pump.

 

http://www.oreillyauto.com/site/c/search/Conventional+-+5W-30/N0423/C0162.oap

 

ROYAL PURPLE BREAK IN OIL ... 10W-30 .... ZDDP 1200

COMP CAMS BREAK IN OIL ....... 10W-30 .... ZDDP 3000

VALVOLINE VR-1 ..................... 10W-30 .... ZDDP 1250

JOE GIBBS HOT ROD OIL .......... 10W-30 .... ZDDP 1250

.

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I'm curious also?

 

So a Cleveland is not a full - flo oiling system and ALL the pumps oil goes through the filter?

 

 

From research:

 

Oil Pressure Regulating Valve. The oil pump pressure regulating valve, usually built into the oil pump, helps control the operating pressure of the lubrication system. The regulating valve is set by the manufacturer to maintain the correct pressure. The valve utilized a ball (or plunger) and spring mechanism. When the operating pressure is below the preset PSI level, the spring holds the ball in the closed position so that oil flows to the bearings under pressure. When the desired amount of pressure is reached, the valve opens enough to maintain this pressure. Once the valve is open, the pressure remains fairly constant, with only small changes as the engine speed varies. If the oil pressure regulating valve becomes stuck in the closed position or slow to move to the open position after the engine has started, the pressure in the system will exceed the regulating valve setting. This may cause an over-pressurized oil filter. If a deformed oil filter is observed, the oil pressure regulating valve must be serviced immediately.

 

Relief (By-Pass) Valve. In a full flow system, all the oil passes through the filter to reach the engine. If the filter clogs, an alternative route to the engine must be provided for the oil, or the bearings and other internal parts may fail, due to oil starvation. A relief, or by-pass, valve is used to allow unfiltered oil to lubricate the engine. Unfiltered oil is far better than no oil at all. This relief (by-pass) valve is built into the engine block in some cars. Otherwise, the relief (by-pass) valve is a component of the oil filter itself. Under normal conditions, the valve remains closed. When there is sufficient contaminant in the oil filter to reach a preset level of pressure differential to oil flow (around 10-12 PSI in most passenger cars), pressure differential on the relief (by-pass) valve caused it to open. This condition can occur when the oil filter has become clogged or when the weather is cold and the oil is thick and flows slowly.

 

 

Thanks

Paul

73 Grande

351C 2v

Now 4v Carb/Cam/headers/T5

 

Gasoline is for washing parts.

Alcohol is for drinking.

Nitomethane is for racing!

 

 

Work in Progress photos here:

Last Update: 4/23/16

 

http://s1270.photobucket.com/user/therocket366/library/?sort=3&page=1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The valve in the oil filter does not regulate pressure . it simply open if the pressure in the filter gets to high which allows the oil to bypass the filter and go directly unfiltered into the engine . some racing filters like the Jomar, do not have a filter bypass valve, therefore they filter 100% of the oi.

 

the best way to keep the oil clean besides using a good filter is to install a bypass filter . these are designed to filter out much smaller particles than typical filters, but this means that they have a low flow rate so they are used in addition to a conventional filter by running a T off the oil pressure port that goes to the filter then out to the pan where a fitting must be installed.

 

the finer the filter material, the less oil it will flow.

 

the larger the filter surface area, the more oil it will flow.

 

there are some very fine filters that have a lot of area which take the place of a bypass filter, but these are too big to use on an automotive app and are used on big rig type diesels.

 

 

 

 

.

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All understood

Thanks!

 

BUT a Cleveland engine has what oiling system?

 

FULL-FLOW or NOT and ALL Oil Passes Through the Filter?

 

Paul

73 Grande

351C 2v

Now 4v Carb/Cam/headers/T5

 

Gasoline is for washing parts.

Alcohol is for drinking.

Nitomethane is for racing!

 

 

Work in Progress photos here:

Last Update: 4/23/16

 

http://s1270.photobucket.com/user/therocket366/library/?sort=3&page=1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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All oil passes thru the filter on every engine I am aware of that use a filter.

 

I was a Chevy guy in the day and they are full-flow design as only around 20%

of oil is filtered as oil filter oil is by-passed after 10-15 psi. So in the event of

a plugged filter there is still unfiltered oil lubricating things.

 

If a Cleveland has 100% of oil going through the filter with no by-pass by

design then I understand how a filter could blow with too much pressure.

 

Just learning Ford engines here very interesting thread!

 

Paul

73 Grande

351C 2v

Now 4v Carb/Cam/headers/T5

 

Gasoline is for washing parts.

Alcohol is for drinking.

Nitomethane is for racing!

 

 

Work in Progress photos here:

Last Update: 4/23/16

 

http://s1270.photobucket.com/user/therocket366/library/?sort=3&page=1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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All oil passes thru the filter on every engine I am aware of that use a filter.

 

I was a Chevy guy in the day and they are full-flow design as only around 20%

of oil is filtered as oil filter oil is by-passed after 10-15 psi. So in the event of

a plugged filter there is still unfiltered oil lubricating things.

 

If a Cleveland has 100% of oil going through the filter with no by-pass by

design then I understand how a filter could blow with too much pressure.

 

Just learning Ford engines here very interesting thread!

 

Paul

 

the ford filter system is the same as a chevy . the oil filters have a bypass valve as i described and al the oil goes to the filter first on both engines . the filter bypass is in the filter itself.

 

the difference between the clevo series of engines and other ford engines is that the oil goes to the lifters before it goes to the crank.

 

small block chevy.

 

SBCOiling.gif

 

.

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the ford filter system is the same as a chevy . the oil filters have a bypass valve as i described and al the oil goes to the filter first on both engines . the filter bypass is in the filter itself.

 

the difference in the clevo series of engines is that the oil goes to the lifters before it goes to the crank.

 

.

 

 

Conclusion:

 

If the cleveland has a full-flow oiling system than the filter can NEVER BLOW

as oil filter oil is bypassed after 15-20 PSI.

 

I am not convinced the cleveland has a full-flow system and research has not revealed the answer. I need a book!

 

Paul

73 Grande

351C 2v

Now 4v Carb/Cam/headers/T5

 

Gasoline is for washing parts.

Alcohol is for drinking.

Nitomethane is for racing!

 

 

Work in Progress photos here:

Last Update: 4/23/16

 

http://s1270.photobucket.com/user/therocket366/library/?sort=3&page=1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Conclusion:

 

If the cleveland has a full-flow oiling system than the filter can NEVER BLOW

as oil filter oil is bypassed after 15-20 PSI.

 

I am not convinced the cleveland has a full-flow system and research has not revealed the answer. I need a book!

 

Paul

 

the clevo system works exactly how i described . as i stated, the oil filter bypass system is in the filter . if you block off the exit to the filter or put a high enough restriction after the filter, the filter will blow just like it will in every chevy ever made.

 

oil does not bypass the filter and go back to the pan under any condition because there is no bypass port leading from the filter to the pan.

 

.

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oil does not bypass the filter and go back to the pan under any condition because there is no bypass port leading from the filter to the pan.

 

.

 

Copy that TYMV understood.

 

Paul

73 Grande

351C 2v

Now 4v Carb/Cam/headers/T5

 

Gasoline is for washing parts.

Alcohol is for drinking.

Nitomethane is for racing!

 

 

Work in Progress photos here:

Last Update: 4/23/16

 

http://s1270.photobucket.com/user/therocket366/library/?sort=3&page=1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Here's your book:

 

qoc13o.jpg

 

"The oil pump bypass spring serves as the effective limiter for peak oil pressure when the engine is cold or at high RPM. The cumulative area of all bearing and valve train clearances in the engine defines the pressure at any time below peak."

 

This is taken directly from Ford Engineering circa 1949. It is also what I have observed and understood over the years. Oil pumps have not changed in basic design since 1949.

 

So when the engine is cold and the oil is thick the pump will dump some of the pressure because the oil is too thick to all physically move through the pump. Without the bypass something would have to break. Hydrolic lock.

 

At high RPM the shear velocity of the oil moving through the system causes the pump to bypass because again it all physically can not move through the pump. Without the bypass something would have to break. Again, Hydrolic lock.

 

In between cold and high rpm your engine has thin oil that is not moving to fast so the only thing that controls the psi under these conditions is how tight, loose, or how blocked the oiling system is.

 

The bypass in the oil pump is actually there mostly to protect the oil pump.

 

If your oiling system is blocked at any point and the oil is thin enough to pump and your are not at high RPM's the oil pump will just keep on pumping and something else has to give and that typically is the oil filter.

 

Now you may think that the filter also has a bypass and it does. But is is a differential based bypass so if the pressure is 400 psi on both sides then it will not bypass but will just burst.

 

It is possible to get multiple bad pumps in a row but it is unlikely.

 

It is very possible to screw up a Cleveland oil system modification and get a passage blocked. I have done it wrong and I have had a filter burst.

 

Again - If that happens and you are using multi weight oil, then at start up the oil is thin enough to pump and you are not at high RPM so the oil pump just keeps on pumping and something in the system has to fail and that would be the oil filter.

 

This is one of the oddities of fluid dynamics in a closed system. It may seem counter intuitive but it explains what is seen in the real world. That being even with a perfectly functioning oil pump bypass the pressure reaches extraordinary high levels and burst the oil filter because of a blocked oil passage.

 

Lastly, If you have a dry sump oil system in addition to your internal pump and you get the dry sump pressure too high, the bypass in the internal pump will never open enough to relieve the pressure and....................wait for it....................here it comes..............you will burst your oil filter.

 

There will be a quiz.

 

Paul of MO

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To clarify, the filter bypass is intended to address a clogged filter element. In the case where the element becomes clogged the bypass allows oil to bypass the element and prevents it from being disintegrated and pumped through the engine. I've seen the result of a disintegrated element first hand...it's mostly plastered to the oil pickup screen.

 

I believe you stated that you had normal pressure at the gauge. I suggest you tap into the port shown adjacent to the fuel pump (in the diagram Paul posted) to see what the pressure is right at the pump discharge. With a stock spring, you should see no more than ~70psi. With a stuck bypass, it should be easy to go beyond that. The premise is that the restrictors limit the volume of oil able to reach the pressure port at the rear of the block and only allow you to see 60-70 psi, despite much higher pressure upstream of the first restrictor. I don't have first-hand experience with this scenario, I'm only offing based on my understanding and application of fluid dynamics.

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Well remember, I did successfully prime the oil system twice, I watched the oil reach the rockers and return via the head drains. As I think back to what exactly happened, Wed night was the first prime, (40w oil) drill set at 1000 rpm, as I first started I felt the resistance build, then it planed off and I watched the oil come up to the rockers, so far so good. Friday I finished up assembly and went to prime the system and just floored the drill, felt the resistance build again, and then POP went the filter. So we went and got oil/ different "WIX" filter, dropped the rpm of the drill to 400 rpm, had my wife watch the gauge, I started the prime slowly and felt the resistance climb again, but it got to a point where it planed off again, (this time 30w oil), as she watched the gauge it spiked to 80psi, then dropped to about 60psi, so I floored the drill to 400rpm and the pressure planed off at about 65psi and I could hear the oil moving around in the engine. So after the second successful prime, we just fired the engine up, it ran for about 30 seconds and POP went the second filter. I can only conclude that for some reason the pump bypass is sticky as it clearly will open if I am cautious during prime, but if I just floor it it pops filters. Its my understanding that the valve in the filter is an anti-drain-back valve that keeps oil in the filter for the next start up. I would suspect if the pressure valve was just stuck or defective it would pop a filter no matter what. I am going to try to get the pan out with the engine in the car as I no longer have the means to pull the engine all together unless I rent a trailer. I looked under the car yesterday as I was cleaning 14 qts of fluid off my floor and I think it can be done. I have oil pan studs installed so lining up the gaskets and pan is no issue, and I have many gasket removal tools and will not reseal the pan unless I am 100% happy with the clean-up. I may have to drop the front sway bar and raise the engine a couple inches but I think its do-able. I'll keep everybody posted. Thanks for all the info gents!! PS: I hope to hear from the pump maker and engine builder today also.:thankyouyellow:

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To clarify, the filter bypass is intended to address a clogged filter element. In the case where the element becomes clogged the bypass allows oil to bypass the element and prevents it from being disintegrated and pumped through the engine. I've seen the result of a disintegrated element first hand...it's mostly plastered to the oil pickup screen.

 

I believe you stated that you had normal pressure at the gauge. I suggest you tap into the port shown adjacent to the fuel pump (in the diagram Paul posted) to see what the pressure is right at the pump discharge. With a stock spring, you should see no more than ~70psi. With a stuck bypass, it should be easy to go beyond that. The premise is that the restrictors limit the volume of oil able to reach the pressure port at the rear of the block and only allow you to see 60-70 psi, despite much higher pressure upstream of the first restrictor. I don't have first-hand experience with this scenario, I'm only offing based on my understanding and application of fluid dynamics.

 

A much shorter way of saying what I said is that if you plugged the wrong passage and 100% blocked your first main bearing the pump simply can not bypass all of that pressure. Check the pressure by the fuel pump and it will be over 300 at 3000 rpm even with a correctly functioning bypass.

 

Paul of Mo

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All oil passes thru the filter on every engine I am aware of that use a filter.

 

I was a Chevy guy in the day and they are full-flow design as only around 20%

of oil is filtered as oil filter oil is by-passed after 10-15 psi. So in the event of

a plugged filter there is still unfiltered oil lubricating things.

 

If a Cleveland has 100% of oil going through the filter with no by-pass by

design then I understand how a filter could blow with too much pressure.

 

Just learning Ford engines here very interesting thread!

 

Paul

Paul,

You are right on some having partial flow. Chevy was slow in putting filters on at all. I believe it was an option for a partial flow filter into the 50's. Did 265 engine have a filter? They wanted you to change oil every 1,000 miles. Ford had a partial flow on the flathead and the filter can was on top of the engine not hidden.

David

When a man is in the woods and talks and no women are there is he still wrong??:P

David

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It doesn't matter where the pressure gauge is located in the system, because in general, the pressure within the system is the same everywhere.

 

There is a bypass valve in the oil pump just as I and others have stated . There is ALSO an anti drain back valve in the filter.

 

As I mentioned, I would try a high pressure filter and 5w-30 or 10w-30 oil first before assuming the valve is stuck because it is far less work.

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I always thought that with a cleveland you would get a more realistic (lower) oil pressure reading at the back of the engine vs tapping in at the front by the oil filter.

351w - Ford racing GT40X 178 cc aluminum heads - Ford racing(crane) 1.7 roller rockers - Comp Cams 280H magnum cam .544" / .544" lift - ARP hardware - hedman longtubes - magnaflow exhaust with X pipe - Duraspark - MSD digital 6al box - MSD TFI coil - optima red top battery - tuff stuff 140 amp alternator - weiand stealth intake  - edelbrock 1406 600 carb  - march pullies and brackets - Be cool fan controller - derale electric fan - FMX trans - motive 4.11 gears - traction lok - lakewood traction bars.                                            

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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I always thought that with a cleveland you would get a more realistic (lower) oil pressure reading at the back of the engine vs tapping in at the front by the oil filter.

 

Agree. It is not a completely closed/filled system, like a water pipe in your house. Pressure will "logically/most likely" be lower at the top/rear of the block, furthest away from the output of the oil pump. Safest to connect your gauge to, for "monitoring overall, running oil pressure." "Testing" pressure at the port by the fuel pump is definitely a good location for specific diagnostic tests, (ie, eliminating pump variables) as these guys above are suggesting/pleading. Why not test/look there? At this point, it is a matter of collecting information you can easily gather, which MAY change your course, prior to pulling the pan and/or engine.

 

In any case, you may learn something by doing it. Scientific method.

Don't be afraid to try something new. Remember, amateurs built the Ark...Professionals built the Titanic! ::thumb::

 

 

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It doesn't matter where the pressure gauge is located in the system, because in general, the pressure within the system is the same everywhere.

 

There is a bypass valve in the oil pump just as I and others have stated . There is ALSO an anti drain back valve in the filter.

 

As I mentioned, I would try a high pressure filter and 5w-30 or 10w-30 oil first before assuming the valve is stuck because it is far less work.

 

 

This is bad advice... put a high pressure filter on and run it??? If OP has a blockage then that will result in the destruction of his crankshaft along with the first two connecting rods. No oil in that part of the engine is bad.

 

Even if it is just the pump then what good does it do to put a high pressure racing filter on it? Great, the filter does not burst. OP still has a bad pump and will still damage the distributor gear on the cam.

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I always thought that with a cleveland you would get a more realistic (lower) oil pressure reading at the back of the engine vs tapping in at the front by the oil filter.

 

No, it's the same everywhere, however it certainly doesn't hurt to check it at another location.

 

If you have a 12" long pipe with a cap on one end and an oil pump on the other and you put 12 different size holes in it . The pressure exiting the hole at the beginning will be exactly the same as the pressure exiting the last hole irregardless of the size of that hole . This is why the pressure in an oil pressure gauge that is fed by a 1/8" line is exactly the same as the pressure at the 1/2" hole at the exit of the oil pump.

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To clarify, the filter bypass is intended to address a clogged filter element. In the case where the element becomes clogged the bypass allows oil to bypass the element and prevents it from being disintegrated and pumped through the engine. I've seen the result of a disintegrated element first hand...it's mostly plastered to the oil pickup screen.

 

I believe you stated that you had normal pressure at the gauge. I suggest you tap into the port shown adjacent to the fuel pump (in the diagram Paul posted) to see what the pressure is right at the pump discharge. With a stock spring, you should see no more than ~70psi. With a stuck bypass, it should be easy to go beyond that. The premise is that the restrictors limit the volume of oil able to reach the pressure port at the rear of the block and only allow you to see 60-70 psi, despite much higher pressure upstream of the first restrictor. I don't have first-hand experience with this scenario, I'm only offing based on my understanding and application of fluid dynamics.

 

A much shorter way of saying what I said is that if you plugged the wrong passage and 100% blocked your first main bearing the pump simply can not bypass all of that pressure. Check the pressure by the fuel pump and it will be over 300 at 3000 rpm even with a correctly functioning bypass.

 

Paul of Mo

 

 

Paul,

 

I was wondering what fraction of the pump's capacity the bypass was designed to handle. I certainly don't know, but I'm with you on the point you're making above.

 

BT

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.

It doesn't matter where the pressure gauge is located in the system, because in general, the pressure within the system is the same everywhere.

 

There is a bypass valve in the oil pump just as I and others have stated . There is ALSO an anti drain back valve in the filter.

 

As I mentioned, I would try a high pressure filter and 5w-30 or 10w-30 oil first before assuming the valve is stuck because it is far less work.

 

 

This is bad advice... put a high pressure filter on and run it??? If OP has a blockage then that will result in the destruction of his crankshaft along with the first two connecting rods. No oil in that part of the engine is bad.

 

Even if it is just the pump then what good does it do to put a high pressure racing filter on it? Great, the filter does not burst. OP still has a bad pump and will still damage the distributor gear on the cam.

 

 

I based this suggestion on the fact that he has primed the engine and saw oil coming out of all the push rods . The oil goes to the crank before or at the same time it goes to the cam on a Cleveland, therefore it's reasonable to theorize that since there is oil flow to the cam, there is oil flow to the crank as well, especially since it is impossible to install the crank bearings in a way that would allow oil flow to the cam but not the crank.

 

Also, he has also already started his engine, so if there was some blockage inside the engine itself, it may have already done damage, plus if there was a blockage inside the engine and he changed the pump the engine could still get damaged.

 

A high pressure filter will not damage anything if he does it the way I suggested in post 28 below. I suggested the high pressure filter after he mentioned it himself because it will eliminate the possibility of the filters he had simply not being able to withstand their advertised burst pressures . I know of several street engines running as much as 120 psi and they have for many years although this is not the norm.

 

I think I also suggested he call Tim Meyer for his opinion if that is the person whom built his engine . Tim Meyer is an authority on this series of engines and a premier engine builder and one of the very few people that has a fixture to properly align the lifter bores in a Cleveland, and if he built the engine, I think it is highly unlikely he made a mistake but things do occasionally happen.

 

FROM POST 28

 

ok, i reread your thread.

 

your brad penn was thinner than your straight weight vr1 when it was cold so that made the problem WORSE.

 

i also see that you are in minnesota so i looked up the air temp which was around a high of 50.

 

the oil filters you tried have a burst pressure of around 300 psi . a royal purple filter is 600 psi but the seal should blow at around 300 psi.

 

before you tear the thing apart, you might consider installing a royal purple filter and 5w-30 or 10w-30 conventional oil with at least 1150 ppm of ZDDP or ZDDB.

 

I would also consider using a dedicated break in oil.

 

if your oil pressure stays above 100 for more than a few seconds, i would turn it off and remove the pump.

 

http://www.oreillyauto.com/site/c/search/Conventional+-+5W-30/N0423/C0162.oap

 

ROYAL PURPLE BREAK IN OIL ... 10W-30 .... ZDDP 1200

COMP CAMS BREAK IN OIL ....... 10W-30 .... ZDDP 3000

VALVOLINE VR-1 ..................... 10W-30 .... ZDDP 1250

JOE GIBBS HOT ROD OIL .......... 10W-30 .... ZDDP 1250

.

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I always thought that with a cleveland you would get a more realistic (lower) oil pressure reading at the back of the engine vs tapping in at the front by the oil filter.

 

No, it's the same everywhere, however it certainly doesn't hurt to check it at another location.

 

If you have a 12" long pipe with a cap on one end and an oil pump on the other and you put 12 different size holes in it . The pressure exiting the hole at the beginning will be exactly the same as the pressure exiting the last hole irregardless of the size of that hole . This is why the pressure in an oil pressure gauge that is fed by a 1/8" line is exactly the same as the pressure at the 1/2" hole at the exit of the oil pump.

 

For what it is worth:

 

There is actually a formula for the pressure drop within an engine as the oil moves through various restrictions:

 

Pressure Drop (ΔP) = [GPM ÷ (23.5 × A)]2 in which, A = Orifice Area, Sq. ln.

 

I actually remembered this - you do not know how much fun it is to remember something like this from years gone by!

 

But it did take me a while to figure out how to post the Delta P part. I did google it to make sure I was not having a senior moment.

 

In the past we have hooked up one gauge at the very front of a Cleveland and one at the very back and saw as much as a 20 percent drop between the two.

 

Worthless information but still fun!

 

Paul of MO

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